A study on the liquefaction resistance and dynamic properties of de-saturated sand

Raghunandan, M.E., and Juneja, A. (2011)., Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 16(A), 109-123 (SCOPUS; SJR2016: 0.239), 2011

It has been established that the presence of air pockets in a saturated sand increases its shear strength as well as its resistance to liquefaction. Regardless of the above condition, until now little research work has been done in this area possibly because the air pockets can be unstable when the granular soils are submerged over prolonged period below ground water table level. In this paper, intrusion of air and its dissolution over prolonged period is first reviewed using centrifuge test. Cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on samples of sand pre-introduced with air pockets to investigate the cyclic response and resistance to liquefaction. The cyclic triaxial test setup and method used to introduce air in sand samples are then described. Results indicate that when the degree of saturation is reduced only slightly, there is considerable increase in number of cycles to induce liquefaction. Also proposed in this paper is the modulus increment ratio, Gr defined as the ratio of shear modulus of de-saturated sample to that of saturated sample. Gr was shown to approach unity at shear strains less than 0.001 and more than 0.012. In between the two limits, the shear modulus of de-saturated samples reached a transient peak for the entire range of degree of saturation investigated in this study. Identical trend was observed in the plots of damping ratio versus shear strain.

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