Publication

Ultrasound Cavitation as a Green Processing Technique in the Design and Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Nanoemulsions in Drug Delivery System

Siah Ying Tang, Khang Wei Tan and Manickam Sivakumar, Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation, Scrivener Publishing, MA, Chapter 7, 155-208, ISBN 9780470943083, 2012

In the pharmaceutical industry, nanoemulsion appears to be an alternative and new dosage form for sparingly water-soluble drugs, in which they allow efficacious treatment of a variety of pains and diseases. Encapsulation of those hydrophobic biopharmaceuticals in the form of nanoemulsions offers numerous advantages: sustained and targeted drug delivery, enhanced dosing requirement with more convenient dosage form, and improved patient compliance with reduced possible adverse side effects. In recent years, ultrasound cavitation technique has been emerged as an energy-efficient yet powerful emulsification tool as variable pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions can easily be produced with a fraction of the applied energy needed fro conventional devices. In particular, ultrasound cavitation, the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of microbubbles, is the main phenomenon responsible for the break-up of larger primary emulsion droplets into finer particle size. Overall, this formulation strategy with such energy-intensive power ultrasound has a significant promise in developing pharmaceutical nanoemulsions with favorable properties in drug delivery systems.


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