Cavitation technology - A greener processing technique for the generation of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions.

Manickam Sivakumar, Siah Ying Tang, and Khang Wei Tan, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 21, 2069-2083., 2014

To date, especially in pharmaceutical industries, nanoemulsions appear to be an alternative and effective formulation to deliver water-insoluble drugs, where they provide a novel drug delivery platform to enhance the dosing requirement, sustainable release, targeted drug delivery, and meanwhile significantly reducing the possible adverse side effects. Cavitation has been emerged to be an energy-efficient technique to produce nanoemulsions where a variety of pharmaceutical active ingredients are encapsulated in the oily droplets. The violent implosive collapse of vacuum microbubbles due to cavitation tear-off primary giant oily emulsion droplets to nano-scale, spontaneously leading to the formation of highly homogenized finer drug contained nanodroplets. The generated intense shear force essentially for nanoemulsification suggests a cost reducing and a safer working procedure, remarkably highlights the industrial commercial viability in the development of new or to enhance the existing pharmaceutical products. This review discusses the fundamentals of nanoemulsion including a general introduction and the principles involved in their generation. Besides, this review strives to give an overview about how cavitation through ultrasound and hydrodynamic means is useful to generate the pharmaceutical nanoemulsion of double and multiple in nature. It also discusses the underlying mechanism in the formation of pharmaceutical nanoemulsion as well as the advantages of using cavitation as compared to the conventional techniques. 

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